Infectious disease is no different than a terrorist threat when it comes to perceived solutions. Air travel restrictions were imposed after the 2014 and 2016 Ebola outbreaks. After the 2014 Ebola epidemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) ultimately found travel restrictions to be ineffective since Ebola has a long incubation time and early symptoms are not specific. However, even when we put aside the particulars of the Ebola virus, researchers have found that restricting air travel is not the best approach for controlling the transmission of infectious disease. Self-imposed travel restrictions by would-be travelers, such as canceling and reducing non-essential travel, has substantially reduced the transmission rate between countries prior to travel bans being put in place.e
The European Union on Tuesday introduced temporary restrictions on nonessential travel to and from the EU, as part of its efforts to contain the spread of coronavirus, Commission President Ursula von der Leyen announced Monday.
This follows the United States' decision to suspend travel into the US from 28 European countries.
With the World Health Organization declaring the coronavirus outbreak a pandemic on Wednesday, countries around the world have been revising their entry policies.
Below are the restrictions in place at some key destinations. We'll be updating this story as the situation develops.
The European Union
Following a meeting Tuesday, members of the European Council along with the ECB President, the President of the Eurogroup and the High Representative agreed to reinforce the EU's external borders by restricting nonessential travel to the EU for 30 days.
There will be some exemptions, including family members of European nationals, essential staff such as doctors and nurses, and people transporting goods to the European Union. Citizens who need to get to their home countries will also be exempt from the closed borders.
On Saturday, US Vice President Mike Pence announced that travel from the UK and Ireland will be suspended starting Monday night.
This is in addition to the previous US ban applying to the 26 countries in the Schengen Area free movement zone: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.
Trump said Wednesday that there would be "exemptions for Americans who have undergone appropriate screenings."
Later, guidance issued from the Department of Homeland Security clarified the ban did not apply to American citizens or their family members.
The US already has other restrictions in place.
Passengers who've been in China and Iran in the last 14 days will not be allowed to enter.
US citizens who've been in China in the past 14 days can enter the US, but will be directed via one 11 airports where they'll undergo health screening. The airports include Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York (JFK or EWR), San Francisco, Seattle and Washington.
President Trump confirmed on Twitter on March 18 that Canada and the United States will close their border to non-essential traffic.
In the US state of Hawaii, Governor David Ige asked at a news conference on March 17 that travelers reconsider their vacation plans. He said:
"I am strongly encouraging our guests to postpone their vacations for at least the next 30 days and reschedule it for a later date."
On March 18, Prime Minister Scott Morrison declared a "human biosecurity emergency" and announced new restrictions, including an upgraded travel advice to Level 4 -- meaning "do not travel."
He added that this travel restriction is because the biggest risk comes from imported cases -- "Australians returning from overseas."
Australia requires "all people" arriving in the country to self-quarantine for 14 days, Morrison said at a news conference on Sunday. He also announced a ban on all cruise ships from docking in Australia.
Passengers who have been in China, Iran, South Korea or Italy in the last 14 days are not allowed to enter or transit through Australia for 14 days, from the time they exited those countries. This does not apply to airline crew, Australian nationals and their immediate family members, or New Zealand nationals resident in Australia, who are instead required to self-isolate for 14 days.
Austria has introduced border checks and placed a ban on all arrivals from Italy, China's Hubei Province, Iran and South Korea, with the exception of those with a medical certificate no more than four days old that confirms they are not affected by coronavirus.
However, travel through Austria is possible, as long as no stops are made in the country.
International and national flights into Bolivia will be suspended starting March 20. The country's borders will be closed from March 19, with only Bolivian citizens, residents, and trade allowed to enter.
Starting March 17, Cambodia has imposed a ban on foreign nationals arriving from Italy, Germany, Spain, France and the US for 30 days.
Canada will deny entry to people who are not Canadian citizens, US citizens or permanent residents, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced at a news conference in Ottawa on March 16.
President Trump confirmed on Twitter on March 18 that Canada and the United States will close their border to non-essential traffic.
On March 17, Prime Minister José Ulisses Correia e Silva announced a three-week suspension of all incoming flights from Portugal and all EU countries affected by the pandemic, and from the US, Brazil, Senegal and Nigeria. The exception is for flights with returning citizens.
All passengers arriving in Beijing from destinations abroad must undergo a mandatory 14-day quarantine at designated facilities. This process will be at the traveler's own expense.
Meanwhile, international business travelers are required to stay at a select number of designated hotels in Beijing where they will be tested for the virus. They will not be allowed to leave until their test results have been returned.
Countrywide, passengers arriving from Iran, Italy, Japan or Korea and traveling to Beijing, Guangzhou or Shanghai are subject to quarantine for 14 days.
Shanghai has listed 12 countries from which arriving travelers will be quarantined for 14 days.
"From now on, all travelers who have been in South Korea, Italy, Iran, Japan, France, Spain, Germany, the United States, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Sweden, Belgium will have to self-quarantine for 14 days," said a statement from the city's municipal government.
Colombia is denying entry to people who are not Colombian citizens, permanent residents or diplomats.
Apart from Croatian nationals, passengers and airline crew who have been in China's Hubei Province, Germany's Heinsberg County, Iran, Italy, or South Korea's Daegu City and Cheongdo province in the past 14 days will be placed in quarantine for 14 days. Nationals will be required to self-isolate.
Other than Croatian nationals, passengers and airline crew who have been in all other regions of China and South Korea, Hong Kong, Japan and Singapore will be required to self-isolate for 14 days.
On Thursday, the Czech Republic declared a 30-day state of emergency and barred entry to non-residents from coronavirus-affected countries, as well as partially closing its borders. Outbound travel to high-risk countries is also banned.
The ban applies to visitors from China, South Korea, Iran, Italy, Spain, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, UK, Norway, Denmark and France, and will come into force on Saturday, state broadcaster Radio Prague International reported in a tweet.
A border closure is in effect in Denmark until April 13. Danish citizens and those transporting goods will still be able to enter the country.
Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen announced the measures, saying: "We are in uncharted territory. We are doing something we've not done before.' Adding 'I'm sure we'll get through this together."
Egypt will suspend all flights in and out of Egyptian airports for two weeks starting March 19, state media reported.
Germany has shut its borders with Austria, Switzerland, France, Luxembourg and Denmark.
Goods and commuters will be exempt from the ban, said German interior minister Horst Seehofer on March 15.
Greece's Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis announced on Twitter on March 1 that the country wouldn't be accepting any new asylum applications for at least one month due to the coronavirus outbreak. This move was to "increase the level of deterrence" at the country's borders "to the maximum."
Beginning midnight local time on March 16, Haiti is suspending flights from Europe, Canada, the Dominican Republic and Latin America for the next two weeks, Prime Minister Joseph Jouthe announced on Twitter.
Flights from the United States will still be permitted, "after an agreement with American authorities," Jouthe tweeted.
People wearing face masks walk through a Hong Kong market on February 25, 2020. ISAAC LAWRENCE/AFP via Getty Images
Starting March 19, Hong Kong will require all arriving travelers from foreign countries to be quarantined for 14 days at home.
The city will also issue a red outbound travel alert on all foreign countries with the exception of mainland China, Taiwan, and Macao, she said. The new measures will apply to both residents and non-residents.
Currently, Hong Kong requires anyone traveling from mainland China to the city to self-quarantine at home for 14 days.
Hungary has closed its borders to non-nationals.
All travelers from the European Union, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom are banned from entering India from midnight March 18 local time.
Currently, all tourist visas are suspended and a 14-day quarantine is enforced on all travelers, including returning Indian nationals, arriving from or having visited China, France, Germany, Iran, Italy, South Korea and Spain.
Apart from Indonesian nationals and residents, passengers and airline crew who have been in China, or affected regions of Italy, South Korea and Iran in the past 14 days are not allowed to enter or transit through Indonesia.
Passengers arriving as tourists are not allowed to enter via airports in the following areas: Alessandria, Asti, Lombardy, Modena, Novara, Padova, Parma, Pesaro and Urbino, Piacenza, Reggio Emilia, Rimini, Treviso-Venice, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola and Vercelli.
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Japan is banning entry on passengers who have been in affected regions of China, South Korea or Italy within the last 14 days. Japanese nationals are exempt, as are their spouses and children, if the relations are verified.
Citizens are advised not to travel to all of Iceland, as well as some provinces of Italy, Spain, and Switzerland.
Jordan's Prime Minister Omar al Razaz on Saturday announced the suspension of all air travel of incoming and outgoing into the kingdom starting March 17 until further notice with the exception of air cargo.
Razaz announced the closure of all the land, sea and air borders to travelers except the members of diplomatic missions and international organizations who will be exempt as long as they abide by the Ministry of Health stipulations for the 14 days of self-quarantine.
The Macau government has introduced several measures including denying entry to visitor who have been to China's Hubei province within the past two weeks, unless they can provide a medical certificate stating they have not been infected with coronavirus.
Travelers who have visited South Korea, Italy or Iran in the 14 days prior to their arrival are required to undertake a 14-day medical observation at a designated venue.
Those who've traveled to Germany, France, Spain and Japan within 14 days of arriving will need to submit to a medical examination as well as a 14-day medical observation at a designated venue.
Residents of Macau currently in any of the affected areas will be requested to self isolate for two weeks upon their return.
From March 18, citizens will be banned from traveling abroad, with foreign tourists and visitors restricted from entering the country.
Morocco has decided to suspend all international flights to and from its territory "until further notice" as part of measures to tackle the coronavirus, its Foreign Ministry said in a statement Sunday.
It came a day after the north African kingdom said it was suspending all flights to and from Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal and Belgium. It was not immediately clear if the suspension went into immediate effect.
New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern announced March 14 that all travelers entering the country will be required to "self-isolate" for 14 days.
The new measures went into effect at midnight March 15 local time and apply to nearly every traveler, regardless of nationality, including New Zealand citizens and residents.
The only exemptions are the Pacific Islands -- but travelers from there will also need to self-isolate if they show symptoms.
The measures would be reviewed in 16 days, she added.
The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control tweeted March 18 that the Nigerian government is "restricting entry into the country" for travelers from China, Italy, Iran, South Korea, Spain, Japan, France, Germany, the US, Norway, the UK, Netherlands and Switzerland.
Visas on arrival would also be suspended for travelers from these countries.
The restrictions will come into effect on March 20. The center tweeted, "All travelers returning from these countries prior to the restriction will be in supervised self-isolation, monitored by NCDC and Port Health Services."
Anyone traveling to Norway from outside the Nordic region must self-isolate for two weeks, according to the Norwegian Health Directorate. The restrictions put in place March 12 are scheduled to last until March 26.
Starting March 16, Peru is temporarily suspending flights from and to Europe and Asia for a 30-day period.
The airline Cebu Pacific is canceling all flights -- domestic and international -- from March 19 through April 14.
In Luzon, the archipelago's largest island, all mass public transportation has been suspended.
Nationals of China, Hong Kong, Macau, Iran and Italy are now allowed in Russia, but exemptions are made for airline crew and foreign nationals resident in Russia.
Passengers who have been in China, France, Germany, South Korea or Spain and are planning to stay in Moscow must report themselves to the authorities by phone and stay self-isolated for 14 days.
Russia will close its border with Belarus because of the pandemic, Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin said March 16, following the earlier closure of its land border with China.
Apart from Saudi nationals, passengers who have transited through or have been in Bahrain, China, Taiwan, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Macau, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Turkey or the United Arab Emirates in the past 14 days are not allowed to enter.
Umrah pilgrimages to Mecca and Medina are also under a temporary ban, unless the pilgrims are nationals of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and United Arab Emirates who have obtained permits.
All travelers entering the country will have to undergo a mandatory 14-day home quarantine starting March 21.
Visitors will also be required to provide proof of the place where they will serve the quarantine.
Rules banning entry for travelers who have been in France, Germany, Italy, Iran, the Republic of Korea and Spain will continue to be enforced.
The Ministry of Health announced on March 18 that all Singaporeans "are advised to defer all travel abroad with immediate effect."
Visitors who have been in China's Hubei Province in the past 14 days, and passport holders from that region, are not permitted entry.
Korean visas issued by the Wuhan Consulate in the Hubei Province are invalidated, as are visas issued to nationals of Japan (at Korean Diplomatic Missions in Japan) before March 9, 2020. This does not apply to airline crew.
All visitors are to undergo a temperature check when entering the country. Those exhibiting symptoms will be required to take a diagnostic test and quarantine for 14 days.
A state of emergency has already been declared in Spain and strict lockdown policies including restrictions on travel in and out of the country are expected.
On Saturday at least five Spain-bound airplanes belonging to low-cost carrier Jet2 turned back to the UK midair. The company said it was acting in response to measures introduced by the Spanish government.
Borders between Spain and Portugal will be closed by the end of Monday March 16, leaving only nine active crossings open to allow for the transit of products and workers who are required to cross the border.
From midnight on Monday local time, all travelers entering Singapore with recent travel history to ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries, Japan, Switzerland or the United Kingdom within the last 14 days will be issued with a 14-day "Stay-Home Notice" and will have to provide proof of the place where they will stay.
Sri Lanka has suspended all flights arriving into the country for two weeks, effective midnight on March 18.
Taiwan is banning entry to foreign nationals, except those with resident, diplomatic or business credentials or others with special permission, the island's Epidemic Central Command Center announced on March 18.
Travelers coming to the island will be subject to a mandatory 14-day home quarantine. The restrictions will go into effect on March 19.
Thailand has suspended its visa exemption policies for travelers from Hong Kong, South Korea and Italy, while visa on arrival has been stopped for 18 countries: Bulgaria, Bhutan, Cyprus, Ethiopia, Fiji, Georgia, India, Kazakhstan, Malta, Mexico, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu and China.
Under the new measures, travelers must apply for visas in advance and present a medical certificate proving they are free of coronavirus. Travelers arriving from countries with ongoing local transmission must allow the government's tracking app to be installed on their phones.
Turkey has halted travel to and from nine European countries: Germany, Spain, France, Austria, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Belgium and the Netherlands. Nationals of those countries are not allowed to enter the country.
Passengers who have transited through or been in Austria, Belgium, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, South Korea or Sweden in the past 14 days are not allowed to enter or transit through Turkey.
Turkish nationals and residents are exempt.
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates has temporarily banned all its citizens from traveling abroad, state news agency WAM said on March 18.
Ukraine International Airlines has suspended all international scheduled flights starting March 17 through March 31, following the Ukraine's government decision to temporarily ban entry to people who are not Ukraine citizens or residents.
Travelers who have been in the 26 European countries in the Schengen Area, plus the UK, within the past 14 days will not be permitted to enter or transit through Vietnam.
Visas upon arrival will also no longer be issued for all foreign nationals, according to a government statement issued Saturday.
The travel restrictions come into effect at midnight Sunday local time, and will last 30 days.
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